|Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)||Micron to sub-micron sample morphology and topography information. Equipped with EDS (elemental analysis) capability.|
|Secondary and backscattered electrons are used to generate 3D-like, high-resolution images.|
|Non-volatile solid sample.||Magnification 50X to 200,000X. 5 nm resolution.
|Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX or EDS)|
|Spatially resolved near surface (depth of a few microns) elemental analysis for detection of elements B to U. Point, line scan and mapping capabilities.||Sample is irradiated with x-rays generated in an electron microscope. Characteristic x-rays are measured based on the energy of the emitted x-rays.|
|Solid, non-volatile sample.|
|Part per thousand detection limits. Semi quantitative. 250 nm spatial resolution.
|Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (XPS)|
|Surface elemental and bonding information including element identification, depth profiling and element mapping.|
|Sample is irradiated with x-rays and the emitted photoelectrons are measured as a function of binding energy.|
|Sample must be a vacuum stable, clean solid.|
|Part per thousand detection limits. 30 micron lateral resolution; 30-50 Angstrom probe depth resolution.
|Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)||Provision of fine, microstructure information including filler/phase dispersion and crystallinity.||High energy electrons are transmitted through a thin sample to obtain high resolution images.|
|Most solids and liquids. Cryo microtome and cryo plunge sample preparation.|
|Extensive sample preparation may be required. ~2 Angstrom resolution.
|X-ray Diffraction (XRD)|
|Identification of crystalline compounds, crystalline size and percent crystallinity.|
|The angle and intensity of x-rays diffracted from a material are measured.|
|Crystalline partially crystalline polymers and crystalline containing liquids.|
|Generally nondestructive technique.
|Particle Size Analysis||Provision of Particle Size of sample.||Laser light scattering is utilised to measure the particle size of the sample.||Dry powders and liquid dispersions.||Sample can be reclaimed.
|Microanalysis||Determination of %C, %H, &N and &S within a sample.||Combustion techniques are employer to determine the percentages of certain elements within a sample.||Solid samples||Destructive
|Surface area measurements (BET)||Determination of surface area, pore volume and pore diameters within a samples.||Nitrogen adsorption is utilised to determine the physiochemical properties of a samples.||Solid/powder samples.||Non destructive
|Differential Scanning Calorimetery (DSC)||Determining melting points/phase inversion temperature/impurities etc.||DSC directly measures heat changes that occur in sample during controlled increase or decrease in temperature.||Solid and liquid samples.||May be particular useful with polymer species/destructive.
|Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)||Determines % water in a polymer sample.||A sample is heated and its weight/mass is constantly monitored.||Solids||Destructive
|Viscosity Measurements (via Brookfield)||Determine the viscosity within a liquid/viscous solution.||Brookfield rotational viscometers measure viscosity by sensing the torque required to rotate a spindle at constant speed while immersed in fluid.||Liquids||Non destructive
|Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)||Determination of ppm/ppb levels of elements within a sample.||ICP is a type of emission spectroscopy that uses the inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions that emit electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths characteristic of a particular element.||Liquids or solids that are easily digestible (usually in nitric acid).||Can generally determine to a ppb level any element within a liquid or solid sample. Solid sample generally need digestion.